Japanese Adjectives – 形容詞

The Japanese language uses two types of adjectives; the いadjective and the な adjective.

 The いadjectives follow and modify the noun. It is used as a predicate, therefore it can also act as a conjugate.

For example, いadjectives in its:

Basic Dictionary Forms
このパンがおいしいです。This bread is tasty(used as a predicate adjective)

わたしは高いふくを買いました。I bought an expensive dress. (used as an attributive adjective)

明日は暑いかもしれない。It might be hot tomorrow.  (used as a presumptive predicate)

Conjunctive Forms
When used as a conjugate, the is omitted and replaced with the desired word form.
For example, 久美子が可愛くて優しいです、(Kumiko is cute and kind). To join the two sentences 久美子が可愛いです and 久美子が優しいです,  くて(kute) needs to be added to 可愛い(kawaii: cute). Hence, 可愛いbecomes 可愛くて (可愛+くて).

More examples,

Adverb Form早く
まいにち早く起きます。I wake up early every day.

Noun Form:厚さ
本の厚さ。Thickness of the book.


The なadjectives can also function as an adverb or a noun.

For example,

Adjective Form: 自由な
自由な日。A free day.

Noun Form: 自由 
自由がほしい。I want freedom.

Adverb Form: 自由に
自由になりたい。I want to be free.

When used as a noun the な suffix is removed from the adjective, and when used as an adverb before the verb に is added as a suffix.

Difference between the いadjective and the な adjective

いadjectiveな adjective
Dictionary Form面白い静かな
Negative Form面白くない・おもしろくありません静かではない・静かではありません
Past Form面白かった静かでした
Past Negative Form面白くなかった・面白くありませんでした静かではなかった・静かではありませんでした
くて: この本は面白くて有名です。で: あの公園は静かで、きれいです。
Adjective preceding noun.

Adjective preceding pronoun.
Adjective preceding noun.

Adjective preceding pronoun.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

1 + twenty =