Dates and Days in Japanese

After learning the names of months in Japanese, let us learn how to say dates and days of the week in Japanese.

Days of the week are named after the sun, moon and five elements associated with the five planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn). This naming system is exactly the same as the Chinese naming system for days.

Days of the week in Japanese

MondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFridaySaturdaySunday
月曜日
getsuyōbi
火曜日
kayōbi
水曜日
suiyōbi
木曜日
mokuyōbi
金曜日
kinyōbi
土曜日
doyōbi
日曜日
nichiyōbi

Meanings of the first kanji for each day are as follows: 月moon, 火 fire (Mars), 水 water (Mercury), 金 metal (Venus), 土 earth (Saturn), 日 sun
The last two kanji in all the names are same: 曜日youbi, literally meaning ‘day of the week’.

How to say the dates in Japanese

EnglishKanjiHiraganaRomaji
1一日
ついたちtsuitachi
2二日ふつかfutsuka
3三日みっかmikka
4四日よっかyokka
5五日いつかitsuka
6六日むいかmuika
7七日なのかnanoka
8八日ようかyōka
9九日ここのかkokonoka
10十日とおかtōka
11十一日じゅういちにちjūichinichi
12十二日じゅうににちjūni-nichi
13十三日じゅうさんにちjūsan-nichi
14十四日じゅうよっかjūyokka
15十五日じゅうごにちjūgonichi
16十六日じゅうろくにちjūrokunichi
17十七日じゅうしちにちjūshichinichi
18十八日じゅうはちにちjūhachinichi
19十九日じゅうくにちjūkunichi
20二十日はつかhatsuka
21二十一日にじゅういちにちnijūichinichi
22二十二日にじゅうににちnijūninichi
23二十三日にじゅうさんにちnijūsannichi
24二十四日にじゅうよっかnijūyokka
25二十五日にじゅうごにちnijūgonichi
26二十六日にじゅうろくにちnijūrokunichi
27二十七日にじゅうしちにちnijūshichinichi
28二十八日にじゅうはちにちnijūhachinichi
29二十九日にじゅうくにちnijūkunichi
30三十日さんじゅうにちsanjūnichi
31三十一日さんじゅういちにちsanjūichinichi

Use the below chart to memorize dates and days of the week in Japanese

Dividing a month into three periods

While making plans and schedules, people have to take number of days or a span into consideration. In Japanese, 初旬 shojun or 上旬 jōjun,中旬 chūjun and 下旬 gejun indicate different periods of a month. 旬 means ‘a period of ten days’.

初旬 shojun or 上旬 jōjun indicates the first 10 days of a month.
中旬 chūjun  indicates the middle of a month (from 11th till  20th of a month).
下旬 gejun indicates the last third half of a month (from 21st till 30th or 31st of a month).

新しい言葉を習いましょう – Lets learn some new words

today – 今日きょう kyō
yesterday – 昨日きのう・さくじつ kinō/sakujitsu
day before yesterday – 一昨日おととい・いっさくじつ ototoi/issakujitsu
three days back – 一昨々日さきおととい sakiototoi
tomorrow – 明日あした・あす ashita
day after tomorrow – 明後日あさって asatte
three days from today – 明々後日しあさって shiasatte
weekdays - 平日へいじつ heijitsu
weekend – 週末しゅうまつ  shūmatsu
holiday – 休日きゅうじつ kyūjitsu
weekly holiday – 週日しゅうじつ shuujitsu
national (festival) holiday – 祭日さいじつ saijutsu
national holiday – 祝日しゅくじつ shukujitsu
Saturday and Sunday – 土日どにち donichi
the other day – 先日せんじつ senjitsu
this week – 今週こんしゅう konshū
last week – 先週せんしゅう senshū
week before last – 先々週せんせんしゅう sensenshū
next week – 来週らいしゅう raishū
week after next – 再来週 さらいしゅう saraishū
date – 日付ひづけ hidzuke

Useful phrases

Q.おたんじょうびはいつですか。otanjōbi wa itsudesuka.
Q.When is your birthday?

A.ついたちいちがつです。tsuitachi ichigatsu desu.
A.It is on the 1st of January.

Q.きょうはなんようびですか。kyō wa nanyoubidesuka.
Q.What day is today?

A.きんようびです。kinyōbi desu.
A.Today is Friday.

展示会は毎年2月下旬から3月初旬にかけて行われる。Tenjikai wa maitoshi nigatsu gejun kara sangatsu shojun ni kakete okonawareru.
The exhibition is conducted every year from the end of February till the beginning of March.

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